free affiliate script

Tuesday, September 18, 2007


Mesothelioma is a form of cancer that is almost always caused by previous exposure to asbestos.[1] In this disease, malignant cells develop in the mesothelium, a protective lining that covers most of the body's internal organs. Its most common site is the pleura (outer lining of the lungs and chest cavity), but it may also occur in the peritoneum (the lining of the abdominal cavity) or the pericardium (a sac that surrounds the heart).
Most people who develop mesothelioma have worked on jobs where they inhaled asbestos particles, or have been exposed to asbestos dust and fibre in other ways, such as by washing the clothes of a family member who worked with asbestos, or by home renovation using asbestos cement products. Unlike lung cancer, there is no association between mesothelioma and smoking [2].

Symptoms of mesothelioma may not appear until 20 to 50 years after exposure to asbestos. Shortness of breath, cough, and pain in the chest due to an accumulation of fluid in the pleural space are often symptoms of pleural mesothelioma.
Symptoms of peritoneal mesothelioma include weight loss and cachexia, abdominal swelling and pain due to ascites (a buildup of fluid in the abdominal cavity). Other symptoms of peritoneal mesothelioma may include bowel obstruction, blood clotting abnormalities, anemia, and fever. If the cancer has spread beyond the mesothelium to other parts of the body, symptoms may include pain, trouble swallowing, or swelling of the neck or face.
These symptoms may be caused by mesothelioma or by other, less serious conditions.
Mesothelioma that affects the pleura can cause these signs and symptoms:

  • chest wall pain
  • pleural effusion, or fluid surrounding the lung
  • shortness of breath
  • fatigue or anemia
  • wheezing, hoarseness, or cough
  • blood in the sputum (fluid) coughed up

In severe cases, the person may have many tumor masses. The individual may develop a pneumothorax, or collapse of the lung. The disease may metastasize, or spread, to other parts of the body.
Tumors that affect the abdominal cavity often do not cause symptoms until they are at a late stage. Symptoms include:

  • abdominal pain
  • ascites, or an abnormal buildup of fluid in the abdomen
  • a mass in the abdomen
  • problems with bowel function
  • weight loss

In severe cases of the disease, the following signs and symptoms may be present:

  • blood clots in the veins, which may cause thrombophlebitis
  • disseminated intravascular coagulation, a disorder causing severe bleeding in many body organs
  • jaundice, or yellowing of the eyes and skin
  • low blood sugar level
  • pleural effusion
  • pulmonary emboli, or blood clots in the arteries of the lungs
  • severe ascites

A mesothelioma does not usually spread to the bone, brain, or adrenal glands. Pleural tumors are usually found only on one side of the lungs.

Wednesday, July 11, 2007

Anterior and Posterior Cruciate Ligament Injury

Cruciate Ligament Injuries
The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) and the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) work together to provide stability in the knee. They cross each other and form an 'X.'
Injuries to the cruciate ligaments of the knee are typically sprains. The anterior cruciate ligament is most often stretched, or torn by a sudden twisting motion while the feet remain planted. The posterior cruciate ligament is most often injured by a direct impact, such as in soccer or football.
ACL partial or complete tears can occur when an athlete changes direction rapidly, twists without moving the feet, slows`down abruptly, or misses a landing from a jump

See ACL - degree of injury slide
PCL injuries (image) are likely with impacts to the front of the knee, or from hyperextending the knee.

Cruciate ligament injuries don't always cause pain, but typically cause a loud "pop."
Incomplete tears are treated conservatively to allow the body to hear on its own. Rest, ice, compression and elevation are the immediate treatment. Nsaids can help reduce pain. Physical therapy will be used to build muslce strength over time. For a complete tear of the ACL Arthroscopic surgery is usually performed.

Tuesday, July 10, 2007


Submitted by Dr. Tamer Fouad, M.D

In the aerobic environment, the most dangerous product are the species of reactive oxygen. The role of antioxidants is to detoxify reactive oxygen intermediates (ROI) in the body. Over the past several years, nutritional antioxidants have attracted considerable interest in the popular press as potential treatment for a wide variety of disease states, including cancer and other causes e.g. atherosclerosis, chronic inflammatory diseases and aging (Delany L. 1993).


An antioxidant is a substance that when present in low concentrations relative to the oxidizable substrate significantly delays or reduces oxidation of the substrate (Halliwell, 1995).
Antioxidants get their name because they combat oxidation. They are substances that protect other chemicals of the body from damaging oxidation reactions by reacting with free radicals and other reactive oxygen species within the body, hence hindering the process of oxidation. During this reaction the antioxidant sacrifices itself by becoming oxidized. However, antioxidant supply is not unlimited as one antioxidant molecule can only react with a single free radical. Therefore, there is a constant need to replenish antioxidant resources, whether endogenously or through supplementation

Antioxidant System

The body has developed several endogenous antioxidant systems to deal with the production of ROI. These systems can be divided into enzymatic and nonenzymatic groups. Figure 4 summarizes the sites of action of the various antioxidants.

Sunday, December 3, 2006

Exercise prescription for health

Even though the benefits of exercise are widely known, the great majority of the developed world remains sedentary. In US, one in four individuals reported doing no leisure time physical xtvt. In UK, one in six are physically inactive. In my country (Malaysia) 40% (my estimate, maybe over 40%) population are obesity (if u want to sell your lose weight product, Malaysia is a right place).

A great number of chronic conditions are associated with physical inactivity and a review entitled ‘waging war on modern chronic diseases: primary prevention through exercise biology’ argues cogently that almost 30% of annual death would be preventable with a primary prevention approach through exercise.

  • Pre-exercise evaluation

Before prescribing exercise, the practitioner must take a history and perform a physical examination just as he or she would when prescribing medication. To extend the analogy, the clinical assessment may indicate that special tests are needed before therapy (in this case an exercise program) can begin

  • Establish lifestyle goals

A good place to start the history is by asking the patient to outline his or her goal(s) related to exercise program. Be clear as to whether the aim is to prevent risk of a disease, slow progression of complication of a disease or improve quality of life that has been compromised by a chronic disease. The aim will influence the exercise prescription itself and how progress is to be measured.

The history should include a thorough medical review to seek any possible contraindications to exercise. Screening program such as the Physical Activity Readiness Questionnaire (PAR-Q), Consent Form help the exercise specialist who does not feel medically qualified to access the patient. The health care practitioner will seek to identify any abnormalities in the cardiovascular, pulmonary, musculoskeletal, metabolic and endocrine systems that should prevent physical activity.

  • Discuss activity preferences and interests

To be successful, an exercise program must be tailored to the patient’s interests. Thus, the practitioner needs to ask about sporting and activity preferences and profile.

  • Physical examination

Complete physical examination includes examination of the cardiovascular system, respiratory function and neuromuscular system

  • Management

It is important at this stage to match the participant’s goal with their preferences and abilities. The practitioner must be discover what facilities and programs are available to the individual both in the home and in the local community.

  • Contingency plans and follow-up

As in any clinical interaction, it is important to identify personal barriers to achieving the goal’s set up in the action plan and to have a contingency plan if blocks are encountered. For example, if the participant chooses a combined land and waterexercise program, ask them if they have a swimsuit and whether a pool is accessible by bus. Have and alternative plan available should the program be offered on days or at times that are inconvenient.

  • Other tip

Encourage participant to involve family or friends in their program goals…

Source: Clinical Sports Medicine: Peter Brukner and Karim Khan

p/s: want to do physical examination?? (Cardiovascular system, sub maximal and maximal test) you can know your oxygen capacity, VO2max and etc.. just contact me.. moneymaker786[@] and I’ll arrange for u.. (Test at University of Malaya Physiology Lab, SPORTS CENTRE)..


weight and performance

The late Dr George Sheehan, a prolific and highly regarded writer on distance running, considered that weight relative to height was the key factor in distance running success. The subject of adjusting weight to improve performance is a touchy one
When and article on this appeared in a sport journal it brought an indignant reply from a nutritionist “it is dangerous to be significantly underweight for one’s height”.
It is also extremely dangerous to be overweight for one’s height, a point that seemed irrelevant to her

No man who is 1.8m tall and weighing 79.8kg will ever win the London Marathon, and it is unlikely that a woman, 1.65 in height and weight 58.9kg will ever do so either.

Simple formula

Why? To answer this we must consult Dr Stillman’s height/weight ratio table. He fixes the non-active man’s average weight for height with a simple formula.
He allocates 56.2 for the first 1.52m in height and 2.296kg for every 0.025 thereafter. He is harsher with women, giving them 45.3kg for the first 1.52m and 2.268 for every 0.025m above this. Having established the average, he then speculates on the ideal weight for athletic performance, as follows:

Sprinter (100-400m): 2.5 % lighter than average (e.g. 1.8m, average weight 81.92kg)-2.5%= 2.05kg

Hurdlers (100-400m) 6% lighter

Middle distance runners (800m-10km) 12% lighter

Long distance runners: 15% lighter

10% drop

Every athlete has a best racing weight which should be elucidated by trial and error. But the starting point for this is to aim for 10% below the average weight for height. It is a long established fallacy that because one runs every day one cannot be overweight for competition.
We require about 2500 calories a day to exist. And if we run 16km a day at a steady pace (able to converse while running) we will burn and require a further 1000 calories.
Thus if we consume 5000 calories a day, say, we are big fat content eaters we can even develop a paunch.

click this link for download a calculation.. u can use this tool for estimate your average weight..

to be continued...